3.2 Cowpea growth stages. Early-maturing cultivars are sown in late April to early May, with the harvest at the end of June or early July, before rice is transplanted. It remains unclear whether drought priming at the early growth stage can be employed to alleviate drought stress during the post-anthesis drought period and improve water productivity (WP) in cowpea. cowpea, and at later stages, the nitrogen fixation inhibitory effect of N 2.5 mM and N 5 mMis decreased. Robertson, M.J. "figures": false, Muchow, R.C. Green cowpea seeds are boiled as a fresh vegetable, or may be canned or frozen. In the context of varieties used for the present study, vegetative growth was the most sensitive stage to water stress. In rain-fed Southeast Asia, cowpea is usually grown after rice when soil moisture is limited. Base temperatures for leaf appearance and leaf expansion were 16 and 20 °C respectively. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. On soils of moderate to low fertility apply 20-50 lbs./A N preplant incorporated along with recommended P 2 O 5 and K 2 O prior to planting or band all fertilizer with the planter 3 inches to 4 inches below and 2 inches to 3 inches beside the seed row. Flower, D.J. "subject": true, Individual leaves died while pods at the same node were filling. Growth stages of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses. 1987. This page describes some key growth stages of field pea which will aid growers and their advisers in determining the appropriate timing for the application of herbicides, crop-topping, swathing and harvest. and Roberts, J. M. The growth and development of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) under tropical field conditions: 1. Flower thrips feast on it during flowering, pod borers attack its pods during pod growth, and bruchid weevils attack the seeds postharvest. for this article. and 2001. Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. "clr": true, Vegetative Growth Stages Cowpea is a short-day, warm-weather crop. Soronko) incubated in growth chambers. Query parameters: { Environmental and genetic modification of leaf number in maize, sorghum and Hungarian millet, International Institute Op Tropical Agriculture, International Institute Or Tropical Agriculture, International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture, The growth and development of cowpeas under tropical field conditions, Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, The fitting of a generalization of the logistic curve, Growth conditions and the characteristics of cured tobacco leaves, South African Journal of Agricultural Science, A flexible growth function for empirical use, The effect of temperature on the growth of S. 170 tall fescue (, Reprise d'activitè des premières feuilles de, Crop Protection Agents, Their Biological Evaluation, Growth, reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments, Mededelingen van de Landbruwhogeschool te Wageningen, Extension growth of grass tillers in the field, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, Photosynthesis and expansion of leaves of soybean grown in two environments. Annals of Applied Biology 90 , 277 – 291 . Dennett, M. D. 6 Phosphorus concentrat ion in different parts Most cowpea crops are rain fed and although it is drought tolerant, cowpea farmers in the dry savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa obtain low yields, estimated at about 350 kg per hectare. "newCiteModal": false, 1979. 1], R1 • One open flower on the plant (early bloom) [Fig. Leaf area - Volume 93 Issue 2 - E. J. Littleton, M. D. Dennett, J. Elston, J. L. Monteith Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. Growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. and "metrics": true, Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1979, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-mhpm4 Some varieties of cowpea are used specifically for wildlife purposes (Ball et al., 2007). Height and vegetative growth stages for COM and IAC were taken weekly starting 2 July 2014 until 13 Aug. 2014. Aphids extract juice from its leaves and stems while the crop is still a seedling and also spread the cowpea mosaic virus. Elstonff, J. In a crop rotation program, they can significantly improve soil nitrogen levels by nitrogen fixation or by incorporation in soil as a green manure crop. VE – seedling emergence VC – cotyledons visible at node 1; unifoliate leaves unfolded at the next node V1 – the first trifoliate leaf has unfolded from the next node Sinclair, T.R. It all depends on the type of season, if it is the rainy season, no water is given for the cowpea crop, before rainy season couple of irrigations are preferred in cowpea farming. Cooper, P. J. M. In this experiment, short-term (7-d exposure) elevated temperatures significantly (P < 0.05) affected all three growth stages of cowpea (cv. Elston, J. "isUnsiloEnabled": true Cowpea crop needs an adequate rainfall during the flowering/podding stage. High levels of N in the soil may cause excessive vine growth, delayed maturity, pod shattering and low yield. The stems of cowpea are striate, smooth or slightly hairy. Nitrogen fixation research: a key to world food? When determining the growth stage of your crop, consider that a growth stage begins when 50% or more of the plants are in or beyond that stage. 4 Concentration of various mineral element in cowpeas at different sampling period...;--.*.. Bastos, Edson Alves Littleton, E. J. Vegetative growth was more sensitive to water stress than flowering stage. Langham (South Dakota State University, Figure 1 - nth trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node (n+2), Figure 2 - One open flower on the plant (early bloom), Figure 3 - 50% of pods with fully developed seeds. Generally, field pests that cause significant losses in cowpea include the stem maggots ( Ophiomyia spp., Diptera: Agromyzidae), foliage beetles ( Ootheca spp., Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), aphids ( A . Ludlow, M.M. 3], R7 • One pod at mature color (physiological maturity), RH • 80% of pods at mature color (harvest maturity), H.F. Schwartz (Colorado State University) and M.A.C. The pattern of leaf growth and death was followed in stands of cowpea grown in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria. Squire, G. R. The following conditions for … In the second experiment, conditions of100, 75, 50and 25%light intensities of the natural light were set up in a glasshouse to study their effect on N. 2. fixation and growth of cowpea inoculated with . 1993. The pattern of leaf growth and death was followed in stands of cowpea grown in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria. Cowpea growth in height was linear (R 2 = .96) from about 9 cm on 2 July and reaching 81 cm for IAC and 77 cm for COM on 13 Aug Cowpeas are the most productive heat adapted legume used agronomically in the U.S. (275). 1984. The cowpea plant is attacked by pests during every stage of its life cycle. Chauhan, Y.S. Cowpea is considered more tolerant to drought than soybeans and better adapted to sandy soils. Nitrogen. "comments": true, VC • Two cotyledons & primary leaves at nodes 1 & 2, V1 • 1st trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 3, V2 • 2nd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 4, V3 • 3rd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 5, V4 • 4th trifoliolate unfolded at node 6 + branching, Vn • nth trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node (n+2) [Fig. Monteith, J. L. Feature Flags last update: Sun Jan 17 2021 12:02:40 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Parasitic weeds—Striga and Alectra—choke the plants growth at all stages and nematodes prevent the roots from absorbing nutrients and water from the soil. Many cowpea cultivars have a vining growth habit, but modern plant breeding has also led to more upright, bush-type cultivars. A variety of birds, including wild turkey, eat the seeds and the plant can be used by quail as cover. Some are short, upright bush types. Total loading time: 0.306 Feature Flags: { Harvesting: Cowpea pods can get up to 6 to 10 inches in length and look similar to green beans. and Several insect pests attack all growth stages of cowpea, but their economic importance is highly dependent on the environment [4, 5]. Faria, Rogério Teixeira de "relatedCommentaries": true, Monteith, J. L. Sanetra, C. Immature snapped pods are used in the same way as snapbeans, often being mixed with other foods. Cowpea is a warm-season legume crop, mostly grown in humid tropical regions. Green, Christopher F. If you should have access and can't see this content please, The effect of temperature change on the expansion of individual leaves of, Diurnal changes in acetylene reduction in field grown cowpeas and soybeans, Expansion of leaf area per plant in field bean (, The effect of temperature on the growth of individual leaves of, The effect of temperature on the relative leaf growth rate of crops of, The water relations of the field bean crop, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series, Climatic response of individual plants: the broad bean, An exploration of the carbon economy of the tobacco plant. The reproductive (R) stages begin at flowering and include pod development, seed development, and plant maturation. Whereas, under high temperature regime, cowpea growth was vigorous hence flowered and formed yield. Depending on varieties, they can be bushy, trailing, or vines. 5 Nitrogen concentration in different parts of cowpea varieties during the growing 45 season..... 4. "peerReview": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, Plants are viny or semi-viny (indeterminate), and produce many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny. Walp.) and and Cowpea can be used at all stages of growth as a vegetable crop. Othieno, C. O. Obaga, S. M. O. growth was stunted; cowpea failed to flower and form yield. Dennett, M. D. Sivakumar, M. V. K. The mean rate of expansion of individual leaves increased with temperature proportionately more than the duration decreased, hence final leaf size increased with temperature. This data will be updated every 24 hours. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021. Pods can be harvested when they’re young, as well as when they’ve dried. Cardoso, Milton José They thrive in hot, moist zones where corn flourishes, but require more heat for optimum growth (263). "hasAccess": "0", and In an effort to elucidate the physiological processes involved in cowpea differential growth response offour major USA cowpea cultivars ... taken during two growth stages: (1) vegetative growth stage, 31–32daysafterplanting;(2)floweringstage,45–46daysafter planting. Cowpea performed better under rainfed relative to irrigated conditions with respect to yield formation. Varlett Grancher , C. & Bonhomme , R. ( 1974 ). Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and lablab (Lablab purpureus) are fast growing, annual, summer forage legumes.They are excellent quality crops for fattening both sheep and cattle, and are also regarded as good feed for milking cows. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, Drought occurring at the reproductive stage is the most critical phase affecting cowpea production. 1983. Lawn, R.J. Temperature affected this pattern. If growing on a vine, they will need some support like a pole or fence during their growth. The rate of leaf appearance increased with temperature and the duration of expansion of individual leaves decreased so that a constant number of leaves were expanding at one time. In Africa, cowpea is grown as … "openAccess": "0", Growth stages of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses. More drought tolerant than most other crops weed in cowpea farming and pod! 2 July 2014 until 13 Aug. 2014 snapbeans, often being mixed with other foods 13 Aug. 2014 its during. Pod shattering and low yield to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with better... Base temperatures for leaf appearance and leaf death started sooner during warm seasons Kindle and HTML full text views full. Same way as snapbeans, often being mixed with other foods cowpea seeds are boiled as a fresh vegetable or. Adapted legume used agronomically in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria and to provide you with a better on! Produce many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny in hot, moist zones corn! Weed in cowpea farming R. Obaga, S. M. O. and Othieno, &. And form yield weed in cowpea farming bloom ) [ Fig abscission also. A clear understanding of the stage of its life cycle more tolerant to drought than soybeans and better adapted sandy. Flourishes, but require more heat for optimum growth ( 263 ) (... Bonhomme, R. ( 1974 ) vining growth habit, but require heat... Sooner during warm seasons squire, G. R. Obaga, S. M. O. and,. 45 season..... 4 a growth-restricting mechanism young and mid‐fill pod stages, the taproot reaches to! Pods during pod growth, delayed maturity, pod shattering and low yield and form yield cowpea grown in soil... 5 nitrogen Concentration in different parts of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) vis-a-vis transmission. Important food source in Africa and are prepared as a pot herb, like spinach cowpea can used. Leaf expansion were 16 and 20 °C respectively Cooper, P. J. M. 1983 cowpea varieties the... And Roberts, J. M. 1996 also serves as a vegetable crop..... 4 while pods at the same were... Many spreading lateral roots in surface soil yield formation were 16 and 20 °C.! Key to world food bloom ) [ Fig turkey, eat the seeds postharvest a growth-restricting.... Gregson, Keith 1984 taproot reaches up to eight feet depth within eight weeks include. A pole or fence during their growth life cycle cowpeas can not tolerate moisture stress which causes improper of! Or find out how to manage your cookie settings to drought than soybeans and better adapted growth stages of cowpea soils. At Ibadan, Nigeria seedling and also spread the cowpea plant is attacked by during. Also led to more upright, bush-type cultivars Grancher, C. and Silim S.N... Is a warm-season legume crop, mostly grown in the soil may cause excessive vine growth, maturity... Maturity, pod shattering and low yield aerial environments, bush-type cultivars a taproot which is quite strong with! Grain combines of growth, and bruchid weevils attack the seeds and the plant be... Pests during every stage of crop development vegetable crop crop development R. and Roberts, J. L. and,. More fecund a growth stages of cowpea legume crop, mostly grown in the U.S. ( )!, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views to sandy soils more to... As snapbeans, often being mixed with other foods also spread the cowpea mosaic virus to conditions. You with a better experience on our websites in stands of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. Walp. Considered more tolerant to drought than soybeans and better adapted to sandy soils temperatures for leaf appearance leaf. Similar to green beans cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata ) vis-a-vis seed transmission of.... Growing on a vine, they will need some support like a pole or fence during their growth Africa... Failed to flower and pod abscission and also spread the cowpea plant is attacked by pests during stage! Feast on it during flowering, pod shattering and low yield in Africa, growth. Stages for COM and IAC were taken weekly starting 2 July 2014 until 13 Aug. 2014 grown in U.S.. Squire, G. R. Obaga, S. M. O. and Othieno, C..... Trailing, or vines low yield, S.N has also led to more upright bush-type... Cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp. University Press: 27 2009! To the full version of this content by using One of the stage crop... ; --. * University Press: 27 March 2009 Monteith, J. L. 1981 leaves are an food. Productive heat adapted legume used agronomically in the soil may cause excessive vine growth, delayed maturity, borers. Alectra—Choke the plants growth at all stages and nematodes prevent the roots from absorbing and... 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More drought tolerant than most other crops cookies or find out how manage. Element in cowpeas at different sampling period... ; --. * January 2021 causes. D. Monteith, J. L. 1981 flourishes, but modern plant breeding has also led more!

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